A cell wall is a rigid, protective layer surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and some bacteria. It provides structural support, protection, and shape to the cell, helping it maintain its integrity and withstand external pressures. Plant cell walls are primarily composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, which contribute to their strength and flexibility. The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a semi-permeable barrier that surrounds the cytoplasm of all cells. It regulates the passage of ions, molecules, and nutrients in and out of the cell, ensuring the cell’s internal environment remains stable. Composed of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, the cell membrane plays a crucial role in communication, signaling, and cell recognition processes. Enroll now at Tutoroot.